Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Art of War - 1442 Words

The Art of War - a brief analysis The Art of War is one of the oldest and most successful books on military strategy. It composed of 13 chapters, each of which is based on philosophy, used the idea of philosophy to observe the war, discussed and find out the general rule of war. Though it is very short, it devoted to one aspect of warfare. The Art of War has a perfect logic system. These 13 chapters, no matter more or less will influence the main idea. Just like the first chapter is Laying Plans, it explores the five fundamental factors and seven elements that define a successful outcome. The second chapter is Waging War, this part is not like the warfare that we think like today, it explains how to understand the economy of war and how†¦show more content†¦To a commander or a leader, sincerely is first of condition to maintain the cohesion. Every organization or group, if there is no sincerely between each of stuff, the organization would not existent. Benevolence is special emphasizing in Chinese military affairs, which also means keep a golden mean, this idea is influenced by Confucianism. To explain benevolence, it is over-solicitude for his men, requiring the commander looks their soldiers like own brother or son and daughter. It will be harmonious in one organization. About courage, it is the spirit of brave, this spirit is the necessary diathesis to a leader. Veracious to say it is one of ability to make decision. For example, one of the Japanese entrepreneurs who named Sun Zhangyi said â€Å"if you do the business when you have 90% confidence, you will be defeated by people who only have 70% confidence on it.† and this decision-making is not a adventure, you must build this on rational courage. Last point is strictness, it is complementary with sincerely. So the strictness is a outside behavior, In one word, wisdom, sincerely, benevolence, courage and strictness, these five stands are interrelated and interaction, only to put these five stands together, it will enhance the leader. Actually, it is not meaning that we need all-powerful leader, what we want to say is basing on the five principle, keeping studying and improving, this will be a excellent leader. Compared five dangerousShow MoreRelatedWar On The War Of Art1658 Words   |  7 PagesWar in Art Introduction Everybody thinks they know what art should be. But very few of them have the sense that is necessary to experience painting, that is the sense of sight, that sees colors and forms as living reality in the picture. -- Otto Dix (Mulch, page 1) War in art. It was not an easy job and yet to this day has not gotten easier. There are two different sides when it comes to war art. On one side, the artists are going out onto the battlefield during the horrifying war so that theyRead MoreThe Art of War1441 Words   |  6 PagesTHE ART OF WAR REACTION PAPER Sun Tzu, the author of The Art of War, wrote one of the oldest and famous books to be written in history. The Art of War, is a Chinese military treatise that has become more than just for military use, it’s utilized in almost all aspects of today’s world. Businesses, sports, politics, education, and so many more have interpreted The Art of War and used it in their everyday lives. The Art of War portrays fighting as a guide serving a dual purpose, suggesting that strategyRead MoreThe Art of War1877 Words   |  8 Pagesstrategist known as Sun Tzu wrote one of the enduring classics of military theory. Most likely written during a period of Chinese history referred to as the ‘Warring States’ period, Sun Tzu’s The Art of War has continued to be studied by military strategists for millennia. Even today, The Art of War is required reading for Naval Officer Candidates. At nearly the same time in the fourth century B.C., the Greek city-states were facin g invasion from the mighty Persian army. Vastly outnumbered, theRead MoreArt in War 2048 Words   |  8 PagesArt in War A pioneer of artistic influence in American culture, Frederick Childe Hassam led the revolution of art in the World War I era. In the midst of a world crisis, Hassam became a trailblazer of his own technique; he promoted a new form of Impressionism that not only reinforced the subtlety and free-flow style of French Impressionism, but also reinforced the vivacity and tenacity that he wanted to express. Amalgamating the techniques of French Impressionism with the nationalistic valuesRead MoreThe Art of War Analysis1106 Words   |  5 PagesThe Art of War Analysis The Art of War was one of our world’s first written documents that dealt with militaristic strategies and advancements. The book was written by a Chinese military leader named Sun Tzu, who commanded and analyzed his military over the Warring States Period of China. Sun Tzu produced this text in an attempt to provide future military advantages for the Chinese, but The Art of War’s ideas eventually spread to neighboring civilizations and empires. The ideas and facts expressedRead MoreArt of War Summary1109 Words   |  5 PagesArt of War is a famous Chinese military strategy book written by Sun Tzu, an ancient Chinese military general. He was famous during his time and for his work entitled Art of War, which made him known even up to our century. According to Wallace (2010), Sun Tzu is the author of one of the most prominent pieces of literature during the era of the Warring States in which China entered around the first millennium B.C.E. In this work of art Sun Tzu tak es a rational approach to the problem of conflictRead MoreArt of War Summary1109 Words   |  5 PagesArt of War is a famous Chinese military strategy book written by Sun Tzu, an ancient Chinese military general. He was famous during his time and for his work entitled Art of War, which made him known even up to our century. According to Wallace (2010), Sun Tzu is the author of one of the most prominent pieces of literature during the era of the Warring States in which China entered around the first millennium B.C.E. In this work of art Sun Tzu takes a rational approach to the problem of conflictRead MoreThe Prince And The Art Of War890 Words   |  4 PagesGeneral: During the early European renaissance, military and political influencer Niccolo Machiavelli published several influential works, including The Prince and The Art of War. His work s greatest impacts were expanding on the brutal nature of realpolitik and realism to maintain peace within a highly competitive system and pr omoting the war manpower shift from mercenaries to citizen militias with buy-in. Many nation-states use his political and military ideals as a basis for their own statecraft andRead MoreThe Art of War for Managers1438 Words   |  6 PagesThe Art of War for Managers While â€Å"The Art of War† was written by Sun Tzu during the 6th century B.C., long before the colonization of the Americas, the onslaught of the Crusades, and before the Persian Wars of around 490 B.C., it remains relevant to this day. There is also strong evidence that the work inspired Napoleon and was used in the planning of Operation Desert Storm. â€Å"The Art of War† has withstood the sands of time due to its simplistic approach, and its applicability to non-militaryRead MoreThe Art of War Essays2163 Words   |  9 PagesThe earliest known writings on war did not take the form of treatises but narratives. Poems, such as those by Homer and the Epic of Gilgamesh glorified heroes while prose accounts carved into Egyptian, Assyrian, and Babylonian monuments described individual campaigns and battles. However, these tales with their gods and godlike heroes may or may not have contained any historical truths. In China a third type of military writing emerged. Afte r the fall of the Chou (c. 400 BC) China divided into principalities

Monday, May 11, 2020

Overview of the U.S. Quasi-War With France

An undeclared war between the United States and France, the Quasi-War was the result of disagreements over treaties and Americas status as a neutral in the Wars of the French Revolution. Fought entirely at sea, the Quasi-War was largely a success for the fledgling US Navy as its vessels captured numerous French privateers and warships, while only losing one of its vessels. By late 1800, attitudes in France shifted and hostilities were concluded by the Treaty of Mortefontaine. Dates The Quasi-War was officially fought from July 7, 1798, until the signing of the Treaty of Mortefontaine on September 30, 1800. French privateers had been preying on American shipping for several years prior to the beginning of the conflict. Causes Principle among the causes of the Quasi-War was the signing of the Jay Treaty between the United States and Great Britain in 1794. Largely designed by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, the treaty sought to resolve outstanding issues between the United States and Great Britain some of which had roots in the 1783 Treaty of Paris that had ended the American Revolution. Among the treatys provisions was a call for British troops to depart from frontier forts in the Northwest Territory which had remained occupied when state courts in the United States interfered the repayment of debts to Great Britain. Additionally, the treaty called for the two nations to seek arbitration regarding arguments over other outstanding debts as well as the American-Canadian border. The Jay Treaty also provided the United States limited trading rights with British colonies in the Caribbean in exchange for restrictions on the American export of cotton.  Ã‚   While largely a commercial agreement, the French viewed the treaty as a violation of the 1778 Treaty of Alliance with the American colonists. This feeling was enhanced by the perception that the United States was favoring Britain, despite having declared neutrality in the ongoing conflict between the two nations. Shortly after the Jay Treaty took effect, the French began seizing American ships trading with Britain and, in 1796, refused to accept the new US minister in Paris. Another contributing factor was the United States refusing to continue repaying debts accrued during the American Revolution. This action was defended with the argument that the loans had been taken from the French monarchy and not the new French First Republic. As Louis XVI had been deposed and then executed in 1793, the United States argued that the loans were effectively null and void. The XYZ Affair Tensions heightened in April 1798, when President John Adams reported to Congress on the XYZ Affair. The previous year, in an attempt to prevent war, Adams sent a delegation consisting of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry, and John Marshall to Paris to negotiate peace between the two nations. Upon arriving in France, the delegation was told by three French agents, referred to in reports as X (Baron Jean-Conrad Hottinguer), Y (Pierre Bellamy), and Z (Lucien Hauteval), that in order to speak to Foreign Minister Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, they would have to pay a large bribe, provide a loan for the French war effort, and Adams would have to apologize for anti-French statements. Though such demands were common in European diplomacy, the Americans found them offensive and refused to comply.  Informal communications continued but failed to alter the situation as the Americans refused to pay with Pinckney exclaiming  No, no, not a sixpence! Unable to further advance their cause, Pinckney and Marshall departed France in April 1798 while Gerry followed a short time later. Active Operations Begin Announcement of the XYZ Affair unleashed a wave of anti-French sentiment across the country. Though Adams had hoped to contain the response, he was soon faced with loud calls from the Federalists for a declaration of war. Across the aisle, the  Democratic-Republicans, led by Vice President Thomas Jefferson, who had generally favored closer relations with France, were left without an effective counter-argument. Though Adams resisted calls for war, he was authorized by Congress to expand the Navy as French privateers continued to capture American merchant ships. On July 7, 1798, Congress rescinded all treaties with France and the US Navy was ordered to seek out and destroy French warships and privateers operating against American commerce. Consisting of approximately thirty ships, the US Navy began patrols along the southern coast and throughout the Caribbean. Success came quickly, with USS Delaware (20 guns) capturing the privateer La Croyable (14) off New Jersey on July 7. The War at Sea As over 300 American merchantmen had been captured by the French in the previous two years, the US Navy protected convoys and searched for the French. Over the next two years, American vessels posted an incredible record against enemy privateers and warships. During the conflict, USS Enterprise (12) captured eight privateers and liberated eleven American merchant ships, while USS Experiment (12) had similar success. On May 11, 1800, Commodore Silas Talbot, aboard USS Constitution (44), ordered his men to cut out a privateer from Puerto Plata. Led by Lt. Isaac Hull, the sailors took the ship and spiked the guns in the fort.  That October, USS Boston (32) defeated and captured the corvette Berceau (22) off Guadeloupe.  Unknown to the ships commanders, the conflict had already ended.  Due to this fact, Berceau was later returned to the French. Truxtun the Frigate USS Constellation The two most noteworthy battles of the conflict involved the 38-gun frigate USS Constellation (38). Commanded by Thomas Truxtun, Constellation sighted the 36-gun French frigate LInsurgente (40) on February 9, 1799. The French ship closed to board, but Truxtun used Constellations superior speed to maneuver away, raking LInsurgente with fire. After a brief fight, Captain M. Barreaut surrendered his ship to Truxtun. Almost a year later, on February 2, 1800, Constellation encountered the 52-gun frigate, La Vengeance. Fighting a five-hour battle at night, the French ship was pummeled but was able to escape in the darkness. The One American Loss During the entire conflict, the US Navy only lost one warship to enemy action. This was the captured privateer schooner La Croyable which had been purchased into the service and renamed USS Retaliation. Sailing with USS Montezuma (20) and USS Norfolk (18), Retaliation was ordered to patrol the West Indies. On November 20, 1798, while its consorts were away on a chase, Retaliation was overtaken by the French frigates LInsurgente and Volontaire (40). Badly outgunned, the schooners commander, Lieutenant William Bainbridge, had no choice but to surrender. After being captured, Bainbridge aided in Montezuma and Norfolks escape by convincing  the enemy that the two American ships were too powerful for the French frigates. The ship was recaptured the following June by USS Merrimack (28). Peace In late 1800, the independent operations of the US Navy and the British Royal Navy were able to force a reduction in the activities of French privateers and warships. This coupled with changing attitudes in the French revolutionary government, opened the door for renewed negotiations. This soon saw Adams dispatch William Vans Murray, Oliver Ellsworth, and William Richardson Davie to France with orders to commence talks. Signed on September 30, 1800, the resulting Treaty of Mortefontaine ended hostilities between the US and France, as well as terminated all previous agreements and established trade ties between the nations. During the course of the fighting, the new US Navy captured 85 French privateers, while losing approximately 2,000 merchant vessels.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Change Free Essays

â€Å"Change involves a choice to alter one’s view of others and their world† Change Is Inevitable, It can not Just simply be ceased however as Individuals, we are given the choice on what we make of it and how we allow it to alter our view of others and the world around us. The choice made on how the world is seen and how its occupants are as well can have a significant impact on someone’s life and shape the type of person that this individual becomes. As evident in the following texts, Enter Without So Much As Knocking by Bruce Dade, No More Boomerang by Codger Announced, Night by Ell Wishes and Took The Children Away by Archly Roach, the Irrevocable change gives Individuals a choice, It Is up to this Individual on what they make of it whether it maybe a beneficial or detrimental impact whilst keeping in mind the alterations that this choice will inflict on their view of others and their world. We will write a custom essay sample on Change or any similar topic only for you Order Now These texts will further enhance the understanding of choice and how it has the power to formulate the type of future that awaits. The poem ‘No More Boomerang’ by Codger Announced, depicts the type of life the Aboriginal people had and although the circumstances that they were placed into ere not Just or fair, they were also inescapable. However, with this being said, the Aboriginal people did have a distinct choice, they had a choice on what they made of themselves in the future and how they could endeavor to learn from these mistakes and grow as people. Much like ‘Night’, ‘No More Boomerang’ also reiterates a negative vibe and lifestyle within both the protagonist’s lives, ‘Now all excelled- Color bar and beer’ this quote from the poem clearly indicates the struggle that the Aboriginal people had during this time. The specification of color bar’ shows that they were aggregated from the rest of the community because they were not good enough to be around the White people’, a clear sign of dehumidification. With now being exposed to a more ‘civilized’ type of living, the Aboriginal people resorted to the foreign comfort of alcohol (been which resulted In the increase of Aboriginal alcoholism. Even though the Aboriginal people had a very slim chance of having a choice as to what happened to them during this devastating time, they still had a choice as to what happened to them afterwards. The protagonist could’ve made the choice to stop informing to the White Australians way of living and to go back to the type of living that he was accustomed to. Lay down the whomever, Lay down the waded. Now we got atom-bomb, End everybody, this quote clearly expresses the change that the Aboriginal people were heavily exposed to, from using their weapons for hunting and survival to having the power to destroy and corrupt within the palm of their hands. This further clarifies the fact that after being familiarized with the feeling of hatred and pain, the protagonist still clearly hol ds that bitter emotion towards the White Australians in his heart even though it was so long ago. This correlates with the protagonist of Night’ who also still experiences the same feeling, only in different context. It represents the fact that they’re still trying to heal from the pain and the sudden changes of their lives, It’s something that they are unable to forget and of people and the world in a negative way. In comparison to ‘Night’, although Lie had very conflicting views on life in general and how he saw people through out the book, as a result of his trauma, he has enabled himself to embrace the change. He, of course as stated previously, still feels bitter towards his past and the Germans, however he still believes that there is room for peace and that the world has the potential to ‘change’ and be more aware of the severe situations that are happening within it’s surroundings. This is explanatory in the quote, ‘l could not believe that human beings were being burned in our times; the world would never tolerate such crimes†¦ , it exhibits the fact that Lie was shocked that no one had come to help them during this devastating time, he presumed that everybody around the world would be aware of such atrocities cause these evil acts would have never been acceptable within that particular century. This quote was when the audience began to realize the sudden changes in the way Lie viewed the world at such a young age while experiencing these hardships. Despite this fact, Lie made the choice to think in this sort of way, regardless if it was portrayed negati vely. His faith in the world and even God saving him and his people vanished, his ‘soul had been invaded- and devoured- by a black flame’ which consequently lead to a resentment towards the said hopelessness of God and to the world, who saw but didn’t act. Lie chose to allow this resentment to sake control of himself and his actions that eventually shaped the type of pessimistic and self-absorbed person he came to be. The poem ‘Enter Without So Much As Knocking’ by Bruce Dade examines the consequences of living such a negative life which is proved in the quote, ‘†¦ Pretty soon he was old enough to be realistic like every other godless money-hungry back- stabbing miserable so-and-so†¦ ‘. This quote implies the negative impacts of living in a materialistic world, the protagonist complains a lot about this through out the poem but doesn’t do anything particularly significant to change the issue. He puts a lot of emphasis on how this world is cruel and greedy and how people are ‘money-hungry and ‘miserable’ but what is noted through out the poem is that he is part of that group of people that he despises. This states that he becomes too busy stating his cynical views on others and the world that he doesn’t begin to realize that he is turning into one of those people and is continuously minimizing the happiness in his life. A ‘healthy tan he never had’ furthermore implies that he never went out and that he stays cooped up within the confines of his home or workplace instead of experiencing the freedom that is easily portrayed as something that he desperately wants. The ‘automatic smile with nothing behind it’ represents that he only put up a smile for show and that he never really meant it and never really made the effort to either, which interrelates with him having made the choice to be this way. ‘Six feet down nobody interested’, it is clear that the protagonist had the opportunity and choice to do something great with his life and not look at it in such a pessimistic way but instead he let himself waste away within a ‘money-hungry world created by back-stabbing, ‘miserable’ people. S ‘Enter Without So Much as Knocking, ‘Night’ and ‘No More Boomerang. In contrast to ‘No More Boomerang, it has been established that Aboriginal children were taken away from their homes and identified as the Stolen generation which is what ‘Took The Children Away is solely about. The similar aspects of these poems is that they didn’t have a choice in the matter but they had the choice to establish a better living for themselves. The biggest obstacle that they faced was that they were confused about who they really were, ’cause we were acting white yet feeling back. Even though they were vulnerable to the destruction of their homes and way of living due to their young ages and thoroughly challenged the way they saw the world, they had to embrace this ‘change’ and life experience. They shouldn’t have let their purity be tainted and not have given this change the power to alter their view of others and their world in such a, once again, negative way. ‘AWESOME’ also explores the same aspects of negativity through a similar modernism environment. Both protagonists didn’t approve of the modernism, money-functioning world however both parties did conform to it. The Aboriginal children were forced into it but still had the choice of what to make of it and the protagonist of ‘AWESOME’ had the choice of making a difference but chose to continue on with his critical behavior. The quote, ‘Came and didn’t give a damn’ indicates the carelessness of the White Australians and how they treated the children as animals rather than humans, this shaped the children’s perspectives of people in general and the beginning of a globalizes world around them. In correlation with ‘Night’ and ‘Took the children away there are a few similarities and differences between the two texts. In ‘Night’, Lie Weasel’s view on the world and it’s people changed a lot. He constantly held bitterness in his heart and his religious views and beliefs that were once, the fundamental reason for his being, were challenged as he continued to survive his dangerous life, this is evident in the quote, ‘It’s over. God is no longer with us’. In his quest for survival, Lie lost a part of himself, his views on people ad the world was detrimental due to the drastic change that he encountered through out his childhood. A distinct similarity between these two texts is that both the Aboriginal people and the Jews were dehumidified, in Night’, ‘Faster you filthy dogs! ‘ and in ‘Took the children away, the simile, ‘†¦ Fenced us in like sheep’. They were both taken away from the familiarity of their beliefs and customs and thrown into something that they never expected which as a result of this, lost an important part of themselves. However, despite this fact, we are only exposed to Else’s negativity through the confines of his book, but really as he grew older he began to realize that he had a choice in how he viewed people and the world. Having a grudge on something that he couldn’t have prevented would have just been a waste of time and he wouldn’t have time to enjoy the brighter things in life. Regardless of the rocky start to his teenage years, he has grown up to understand that he needed to turn his life around and make it into something worth living. He didn’t resort to alcohol, drugs or violence but to a more peaceful type of living. He sees a brighter future for our world, one that had the potential to really help others in need and to imitate the love that God provides us, towards each other. Say that change does involve a choice to alter one’s view others and their world. However, it is up to the individual on what they make of it and how much power they give it to control the person they’re meant to be in the future. Negative changes can constitute to negative views but it can also constitute to positive ones and even if these changes are inevitable what isn’t, is how you learn from them and gain knowledge to apply to everyday circumstances. As individuals we all have a choice to make whether beneficial or detrimental but we must understand that regardless of this the change will, without a doubt, alter one’s view of others and their world. How to cite Change, Papers Change Free Essays â€Å"Nobody can go back and start a new beginning but anyone can start today and make a new ending†. Maria Robinson’s quote can be applied to the concept of change as anyone can alter the way they are in their lives and become something new. Change is a state of transformation which results in a fundamental shift in the way we perceive and interact with the world. We will write a custom essay sample on Change or any similar topic only for you Order Now It is the process of being made different, altered in appearance, turned into something or someone new. The concept of change is very important in our lives as it gives us new experiences whether it be positive or negative. Change can be explored in the poem â€Å"Remember me? † by Ray Mather, â€Å"My father began as a god† by Ian Mudie, â€Å"Originally† by Carol Ann Duffy and in the pros fiction â€Å"Sky high† by Hannah Roberts. The poem â€Å"Remember me? † by Ray Mather incorporates the theme of change throughout it and is further established by language techniques. The forms of change shown in the poem are physical and emotional change shown by the quote â€Å"I’m bigger and I’m stronger† and emotional change shown by â€Å"now I’m not so quick to cry†. These changes are evident through the shift in tone and the evolution of circumstances. Throughout the poem â€Å"Remember me† the poet uses the technique repetition of the word â€Å"I† which reinforces the flow of the poet’s narration which link stanza’s one, two and three together reflecting on the past that he had. Repetition is also used in the third stanza of the word â€Å"someone† which highlights that the boy was a nameless and helpless victim for another’s entertainment. This is supported by the negative metaphor of the poet being a punching bag for abuse. This repetition is then changes as the poem goes on through the repetition of the word â€Å"I’m† which shifts the poem to present tense emphasising internal narration as the poet considers the actions he is capable of. This shows the concept of change as the boy has transformed from being isolated and lonely as a negative experience to being a popular kid and being powerful as a positive transformation. There is a sudden shift in tone which shows that the poet’s outlook is altered. This is supported by the metaphor â€Å"Time hurried by† which emphasises that the boy is going through a time of change in his life which results in his perspective and point of view being altered. This metaphor provides the audience with an understanding that the boy has gone through a negative transformation to a positive transformation. This relates to the concept of change as the poet has gone through a sudden shift in his life to better himself for the future. The poem â€Å"My father began as a god† by Ian Mudie also shows the concept of change and changing perspectives. In the early stages, the poet idolised his father who was entertaining and authorative. This is supported by the simile â€Å"my father began as a god† which shows the audience that his father started off like a god but as time had passed by, perspectives had been altered which resulted in a negative perception of his father who was not perceived to be the same person as he used to be. This relates to the concept of change as the perspective of his father had gone from positive to negative. The poet uses and extended metaphor in the poem â€Å"he fearlessly lifted me to heaven, by the mere swing to his shoulder and made of me a godling† which communicates the positive perspective that the poet once had of his father which then changed to a negative one as time went by. This relate to the concept of change as there was a shift in the way that he viewed his father compared to when he was young. As the poet moved into adulthood, his view of his father changed even further. Repetition of the word â€Å"strange† shows the audience the poet’s point of view about his father and how his perspective had changed from when he was younger. His perspective started of as a positive one seeing his dad as a god until he grew older and a negative perspective had been developed as seeing his father as foolish and outdated. This relates to the concept of change as the poet’s view of his father has been altered as he has grown up. The poem â€Å"Originally† by Carol Ann Duffy implies a journey of changes. It creates an allure for the reader to ponder what the catalyst for change is in this poem. The use of personification â€Å"the miles rushed back to the city† is used to show an uncertain journey and reinforce her desire to return home. It shows a sense of displacement from where she had just left which emphasises loss and isolation for the poet. This relates to the concept of change as there is a shift from one place to another in the poem. The poet uses repetition in the poem quoting â€Å"home, home† which is used to emphasise that the poet is going through a time of change and wants to return to her original place being home. This relates to the concept of change as there is a shift in ones life from one place to another as shown in the poem. The pros fiction â€Å"Sky high† by Hannah Roberts uses the technique simile â€Å"shirts like coloured flags in secret code† to show her own personal childhood experiences and her perspectives as a child. This relates to the concept of change as there is an alteration in experiences from childhood to when you grow older which results in perspectives about the world being dramatically altered. The clothesline in the poem is the first thing that the poet remembers as a child which means it is her first childhood experience. She had her own perspective of the clothesline as a child until one day it had changed. This is supported by the use of imagery and alliteration â€Å"smooth, sweat damp hands† which is used to emphasise childhood actions. This creates change in the poet’s perspective as the clothesline had differed from one day to another which meant that her outlook had been altered. This relates to the concept of change as there is a constant shift in the way that we perceive things on a day to day basis. In conclusion, the poems â€Å"Remember me? †, â€Å"My father began as a god†, Originally† and the pros fiction â€Å"Sky high† all relate to the concept of change and changing perspectives. This is explored through the use of techniques in each of the texts give us an understanding of how change is explored b each of the people in these texts. How to cite Change, Papers Change Free Essays CHANGE Is America ready for a change? And now that a chance is given, will it be taken? John Edgar Wideman, writer of â€Å"Street Corner Dreamers† wonders himself. Will the youth step up and make a difference? and become more than a stereotype. Is it right for Americans to rest on their laurels? His thoughts on appearance and reality, can the color of the president insure change. We will write a custom essay sample on Change or any similar topic only for you Order Now Wideman wonders about the youth today. There are too many of them running around doing nothing with their lives. Seeping through the cracks and who is going to be there to help them out. Will Obama? Wideman wonders â€Å"How will President Barack Obama attempt to seal the cracks they slip through? Not cracks in the pavement of Grand and Essex, but the cracks of broken promises, the cracks that have divided and conquered the will of a nation to treat all citizens equally†(858). It seems the questions never end, but what else can they do but wonder. The world stands and waits for the next move, but instead of waiting why don’t they join in on making the first move. Just because the president is black and that is accomplish within itself. Taking the first step is always the hardest but it has to start somewhere. â€Å"I want to walk up to one of them and ask â€Å"Do you think your life might be different now that Barack Obama is president? What steps do you believe President Obama will take to improve your life? What steps do you think he should take? †(857). There are some kids that are out there willing to make a change and enforcing it as well but there isn’t enough, the more that will contribute the less work there will be for everyone and life could go back to the way it used to be, cheap. In school, kids only think about their looks and the lust of one another is no longer a learning system but a fashion show at the mall. From what’s on your hair to the latest sneakers, â€Å"young people of amalgamated†¦eyes hungry for each other† (858). Wideman said though â€Å"intimidated† he was in love with the way the kids thought, made him think about his own and one day theirs. About the future that he will no longer be in charge of but let the young adults care for him. He’s also worried that there are more than few of them walking around without a care in the world, not thinking about their future. â€Å"Is there such thing, really, as a future in young minds†? Kids today are committing suicide, and are in gangs and killing one another, or just not focusing enough in school, whatever it maybe. Kids are finding more ways to stay on the streets, but being on the streets doesn’t make you any less it just means you must work harder to achieve your goals. There should be more adults trying to guide these lost souls back, instead of turning their back and being even more ignorant adults acting up. It’s not only the kids fault but the nature, these kids don’t have a choice on where they grow up or how much money they’re parents make or the way of luxurious life styles they weren’t grace with jewels but if they work hard and really want it anything can be there’s. Look at all those rich and famous people not all of them where born into it, most of them had to work hard and grind and that what should be taught to work hard and you shall receive. Americans feel it is okay to rest on their laurels but resting on anything that is half way built is bound to break and tip over. Having a good foundation is key to success, help is needed in these kids life’s more people who give a damn and Obama is doing that. Giving the little ray of sunlight on those kids future. Letting them know that no matter how big their dream is they can receive it as long as they work hard at it. Obama is trying to build a better and stronger foundation for future for Americans but he can’t do it alone. Everyone has to take responsibility and try to become a better them. â€Å"Perhaps we would explore together the explosive, still almost unbelievable fact that our country finally seized the opportunity to turn away from one deeply rooted, intractable, self-destructive, dead-end understanding of itself as white and black, finally began to create a new vision of itself†(858). Just as Wideman said try to be the positive being you want to see in the world. Michael Jackson was a legend he not only sing beautifully but his is words he made a difference. His song Man in the Mirrors lyric is very powerful and true â€Å"If you wanna make the world a better place take a look at yourself, and then make a change† should be a world motto and if â€Å"Yolo† was used correctly you do only live once so use every opportunity given big or small, just take it â€Å"Yolo† right . Obama was just the tip of the iceberg of change and good this world really needs. Wideman story was honest and good, his points were valid and firm. The only question is America ready for a change? And now that a chance is given, will it be taken? How to cite Change, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Employee Self “ Actualization Problem at Redgrove Axial Essay Example

Employee Self â€Å" Actualization Problem at Redgrove Axial Essay Suggested solution 10 Introduction Regroup Axial Workshop case talks about the self actualization problems of employees belonging to the most effective workshop of the whole Regroup plant, which is owned by the TIT corporation a North American based manufacturer of equipment ranging from axial compressors for aircrafts to highly sophisticated aeronautic and defense systems. The Regroup plant, where the action takes place In tons case, Is ten mall u s. Maturating Tacitly Tort alert Engle parts Delousing to the aeronautics business unit. The plant is situated in a small town, only one hour way from a large metropolitan area. The problems of self actualization are alive at the axial compressor workshop, which activities contributed nearly 20 per cent of the Resolves plant annual revenues. The numbers talk for themselves and without no doubt this workshop is most effective in the plant. Actually, members of the axial workshop had a great reputation for being very hard workers and employee turnover was a very rare phenomenon there. Most of the best workers at the manufacturing workshop are the ones, which were moved here from prototype workshop, since the engineers started using a more sophisticated software. The axial workshop production manager Fontanne also observed that those ex-prototype employees not only consistently volunteered to fill rush orders but also were like a family. Fontanne had even found them once pooling together at the local pub. So the working atmosphere, as we may observe, is really good at this particular workshop. We will write a custom essay sample on Employee Self â€Å" Actualization Problem at Redgrove Axial specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Employee Self â€Å" Actualization Problem at Redgrove Axial specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Employee Self â€Å" Actualization Problem at Redgrove Axial specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Relevance of the topic from B aspect As the organizational behavior is a field of study which investigates the impact that individuals, structures and groups have on behavior within organization, this topic about self actualization and Job satisfaction becomes particularly relevant from B perspective. We can take our case for example and state that even the smallest gaps in the understanding of employee self actualization needs, can lead to the violation of corporate code of conduct. Talking about Job satisfaction, we can tell, that even the smallest Job dissatisfaction shadow at the particular unit of employees may lead to significant production losses and thus enormous monetary deprivation. Therefore, it is very crucial to understand the impact that people behavior can have on organizational performance and to excavate the underlying reasons of such behavior. Analysis aim and tasks The aim of our analysis is to understand the underlying reasons of the problem described above and to provide a logical solution for that problem which is built on the reasons why it is occurring. Talking about the tasks of our analysis, we will at first conduct a SOOT analysis of an axial workshop unit of workers, who are related to the self actualization problems occurring in that unit. In this way we will identify all the complementary problems occurring at the workshop and determine why they exist. Then we will provide theoretical background related to our problem and by using the heretical framework we will evaluate the alternatives available to us. At the end we will come to the conclusion and provide the main solution for the problem at the same time explaining the rationale behind our choice. Situation analysis Strengths * Most effective in the whole plant * Very hard working * Very united * Have a lot of experience * Extraordinary creative * Low turnover I Weaknesses * Are not used to full potential * Engaging in amateur work * Exploit companys assets * Teaching newcomers to act the same * Self actualization needs neglected I Opportunities * To unleash the full potential of the employee reiterative and workmanship * Ability to use the scrap more efficiently * To satisfy the needs of self-realization * The company as a whole may benefit from that I I narrates Employees may s tart to use ten new material to make stun N workers may misinterpret it * Managers may decide to fire those creative employees * Reduced effectiveness (due to the dissension) We have chosen to use SOOT analysis to determine the current situation, concerning the best employees which are having problems with self actualization. We wanted to see what is happening right now, what are the best capabilities of hose employees, what are the problems related to that particular worker unit. Also, we can see what are the opportunities, which can be exploited if the problems were managed properly and the threats related to the decision. Talking about the strengths, we can mention that the axial workshop manufacturing unit is very effective, probably the most effective in the whole plant. That is probably the case because of their hard work, which allowed them to develop skills needed to work more efficient than needed. One more major advantage of this working unit is that they are very united and friendly to each other. This in fact builds a very friendly working atmosphere. Another thing which contributed to the effectiveness of this working unit is many years of experience of old timers, which may share the knowledge and skills with younger teammates. As the case showed, these workers are also very creative, when it comes to workmanship on metals, while they were able to make such amazing lamps themselves. The last but not least thing that has united this collective is low turnover, which does not incur additional costs on the company. Lets talk about the weaknesses, which indicate what can be done more in order to increase the further efficiency of the axial workshop. The case shows us that the most effective workers do not usually have what to do, when they have fulfilled hourly plans and thus are not used to full potential. Because of that, they are engaging in amateur workmanship, making lamps and other stuff using company assets, which is completely prohibited looking from the perspective of company rules and code of conduct. At the same time, the old timers are teaching newcomers to do same things and spread that among other members, who are then also tend to violate the rules. We can see that all of these problems occur because the most efficient workers are not feeling they use their full potential. It means that the management has forgotten about the self actualization needs of its employees. Harrower, the most important thing is that there are a lot of opportunities related to the proper management of weaknesses and exploitation of strengths. If the most effective employees were allowed during their free time to use the scrap material to make their mind imagination stuff, thus revealing their creativity and workmanship, many problems would be solved and also the company itself may benefit from that monetary as well as from the motivation and employee Job satisfaction perspective. First of all, they may use scrap more efficiently, because the amateur work stuff made in spare time may be sold in auctions to senior managers for the higher price than as if it is only sold as scrap. Secondly, the needs of self-realization of employees would be satisfied and thus it would lead to even higher motivation to work and commitment to the company. There are also some kind of threat related to the decision to liberalize the usage of scrap material. It may be the case that employees ill get so engaged in the activity that they will start using the new material to make attractive amateur s out. T Also, new workers may try to ay Tanat, Decease AT misinterpretation of the scrap usage programmer. Also, there is a treat that managers may try to punish or even fire those employees who are most effective, because of inappropriate usage of scrap and this decision would probably reduce effectiveness significantly. Problem identification Talking about the problem itself we can mention that it was kind of brought to the surface, when the axial workshop manager Fontanne has found the lamp at the outrage room, which was made out of the scrap material, which is left after all the manufacturing activities of the axial compressors took place. The scrap was usually sold to local collector of scrap for 5,5 dollars per pound. Fontanne found out later from his colleague supervisor that these lamps and personal things like that were mostly made by the so called old timers, which were the most productive workers and usually finished the work very quickly. So, they were actually spending time making this creative stuff Just to fulfill their self actualization needs. While the robber itself does not seem very serious, employees have breached the code of conduct and there were few cases when they were punished for that. This is a problem and if it is not solved, company can get losses while employees would keep doing something that is illegal, but the real problem is about motivation and lack of the conditions to improve self-actualization of those old timers. The manager is facing the dilemma of what to do next and how to approach this kind of problem. As it seems, sanctions such as warnings, forcing to work for few days without payment or even firing have not stopped the appearance of the same problem. Considering that such actions are not helping and may be even harming for both sides, because of the company inputs for training of workers and the lack of motivation or incentives for the workers, we have to find the solution which would try to make a win-win situation. Theoretical survey and scientific article http://www. Academia-research. Com/filched/insist/a/_/ 665402_a_review_of_employee_motivation_theories_and_their_implications. PDF A Review of Employee Motivation Theories and their Implications for Employee Retention within Organizations (Sunnis Removal, Ph. D. , University of SST. Thomas, Minneapolis, MN) In this review we found some relevant theories and interesting propositions that were applicable to our case. The article provides a synthesis of employee motivation theories and offers an explanation of how employee motivation affects employee retention and other behaviors within organizations. In addition to explaining why it is important to retain critical employees, the author described the relevant motivation theories and explained the implications of employee motivation theories on developing and implementing employee retention practices. The final segment of the paper provides an illustration with explanation on how effective employee retention practices can be explained through motivation theories and how these efforts serve as a strategy to increasing organizational performance. Masons Need Hierarchy Theory Moscow believed that there are at least five sets of goals which can be referred to as basic needs and are physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization. Moscow (1943) stated that people, including employees at organizations, are motivated by the desire to achieve or maintain the various conditions upon which these basic adolescents rest Ana Day certain more Intellectual sealers. Humans are a perpetually wanting group. Ordinarily the satisfaction of these wants is not altogether mutually exclusive, but only tends to be. The average member of society is most often partially satisfied and partially unsatisfied in all of ones wants (Moscow, 1943). The implications of this theory provided useful insights for managers and other organization leaders. One of the advise was for managers to find ways of motivating employees by devising programs or practices aimed at satisfying emerging or unmet needs. Another implication was for organizations to implement support programs and focus groups to help employees deal with stress, especially during more challenging times and taking the time to understand the needs of the respective employees (Grittier, 1998). When the need hierarchy concept is applied to work organizations, the implications for managerial actions become obvious. Managers have the responsibility to create a proper climate in which employees can develop to their fullest potential. Failure to provide such a climate would theoretically increase employee frustration and could result in poorer performance, lower Job satisfaction, ND increased withdrawal from the organization (Steers Porter, 1983, p. 32). The last sentence is particularly important in our case, because the last step of the Masons hierarchy of needs was not reached by the employees self actualization. The Job itself was so repetitive and boring, that it could not ensure the employee satisfaction. Job enrichment was clearly required by the management. The Motivator-Hygiene Theory One of the earliest researchers in the area of Job redesign as it affected motivation was Frederick Herbert (Herbert, 1959 ). Herbert and his associates began their initial work on factors affecting work motivation in the mid-sasss. Their first effort entailed a thorough review of existing research to that date on the subject (Herbert, 1957). Based on this review, Herbert carried out his now famous survey of 200 accountants and engineers from which he derived the initial framework for his theory of motivation. The theory, as well as the supporting data was first published in 1959 (Herbert, 1959) and was subsequently amplified and developed in a later book (Herbert, 1966). Based on his survey, Herbert discovered that employees tended to scribe satisfying experiences in terms of factors that were intrinsic to the content of the Job itself. These factors were called motivators and included such variables as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Conversely, dissatisfying experiences, called hygiene factors, largely resulted from extrinsic, non-Job-related factors, such as company policies, salary, coworker relations, and supervisory styles (Steers, 1983). Herbert argued, based on these results, that eliminating the causes of dissatisfaction (through hygiene factors) would to result in a state of satisfaction. Instead, it would result in a neutral state. Satisfaction (and motivation) would occur only as a result of the use of motivators. The implications of this model of employee motivation are clear: Motivation can be increased through basic changes in the nature of an employees Job, that is, through job enrichment (Steers, 1983). Thus, Jobs should be redesigned to allow for increased challenge and responsibility, opportunities for advancement, and personal growth, and recognition. Actually, this theory has provided us with the true scientific Docudrama Tort solving our case problem. It states Tanat you wall not deal wilt satisfaction of employee problem unless you start using motivators, which are intrinsic to the content of the Job itself. The solution we would offer should make their Jobs more interesting, enriched and meaningful. That is the only way to retain the best workers and keep them satisfied. Evaluation of the alternatives As the case analysis suggested, the main problem is the company policy that does not involve self-actualization of employees. To solve this problem, we provided three alternatives that could solve or at least improve the problematic situation. First alternative is to follow the code of conduct that was mentioned in exhibits section as an excerpt. It says that employees must protect company assets including production materials, otherwise some sanctions would be used, ranging from warnings to termination or even filing a criminal charge in court. If a person uses production material, he could be warned, punished with no payment for few days, or even fired. All such actions could be a warning for other workers and they would either stop usage of scrap metal, or rebel against the regulations and do it more secretly. It is possible that the problem would not continue and as a result, everything would go back to the same working atmosphere with relatively good financial results, but the question is for how long? This alternative somehow shuts the door to self- actualization improvement, because an additional activity, which is considered as fun and creative, would be terminated. The case mentioned that most of the workers doing those works of art from scrap material, were actually senior workers that had been working in a company for quite long. This means, that firing them or punishing hem, could lead to negative effects not only because they are valuable as trained workers, but also to the whole group of workers inside the workshop, because those senior craftsmen have helped to develop the skills of new workers which saved money for training costs. Summarizing the positive and negative aspects of this alternative, the solution is that some other alternatives could be more effective. Second alternative looks at the problem as a lack of entertainment for the senior craftsmen who finish their work faster and sometimes even stay overtime for no payment. This could mean that they need some other activities which would help hem spend the extra time and forget or idioms their hobby of using scrap materials to create something. To solve this problem, we thought about implementation of a special room or corner for having fun or relaxing in some entertaining ways. For example, playing cards, pool or table tennis; watching TV and sitting on the soft couch; having some sort of games on consoles like Nintendo WI or even exercising on some gym equipment. As a result, workers would either feel relaxed or entertained and after those activities they would get back to work. Motivation of those craftsmen could increase, because they would not have to constantly work on heir routines and their willingness to work could also increase while there would be no time left to make something from scrap metal. Despite that, we must consider that the mentioned things have costs, some of those even high ones. Moreover, a manager or supervisor would have to constantly monitor how much time the workers spend on entertaining and also there could be a problem of who is allowed to use that room and who is not which would lead to mistrust or new from other workers. Summarizing the pros and cons of this alternative, we considered that there still snow a De a netter way In wanly everyone would De nappy Nils Is winner ten Tanta wider and probably more effective alternative takes part. It suggests allowing workers to continue the making of unique objects from scrap materials, but with authorization and support from the company. To be more specific, the whole process should be legalized and code of conduct should be changed accordingly. Also, to strengthen the logic and effectiveness, those objects could be sold or given as gifts. The choice of giving gifts could be useful if every worker was given a nice thing created from the workers of the same workshop or plant, but the question is for what occasions? Birthdays would happen every year and people getting such presents would not have the place where to put it and also considering this type of present as a motivational incentive could be useful for maybe one time. The case mentioned one worker that got such a gift for his retirement, we could say that such an occasion is good and it could increase employee satisfaction, commitment and good promotion for the company. This gifts making offer has a nice side, but surely there are some drawbacks that are connected with time, number of people in the company and the meaning of such gifts because of different personalities of every person. This is why we came up with maybe a more feasible solution of selling. In the exhibit section it was mentioned that there are about 5000-7000 lbs. Of scrap-metal sold each month for about 30000 dollars. On the one hand, this is a productive way of returning some value of practically useless material. On the other hand, we considered that this could be improved with an implementation of an auction. Number of those things that were created is quite small, because workers were afraid of being caught and punished for such actions, but if the whole process was allowed, there could be a big increase in numbers and a possibility of selling them. In order for the process to be equal both ways, we considered making an auction where those made objects were sold for the highest price on some monthly meetings in which everyone from the company could participate. The lamps, candlesticks or any other kind of creative and unique things could be made by the craftsmen and sold for a bigger price than the scraps. Also, to make this useful for the maker, he could get 20-40% of the amount sold, or make it that he got the amount differentiated from the price that scrap metal was sold before and the price that the new object had after selling it. We must consider the negative side of such solution. The first thing it would take time to implement such a strategy and decide on some parts, the second thing is that it would require to decide what percentage the maker would get from selling his piece of art, the third thing is that it would also require to decide who could create such things and how often they should do that, whether everyone that has extra time in the axial workshop would be allowed and senior craftsmen would be like tutors or mentors, or only those craftsmen could do that; the fourth thing is that there should be a test period of the auction to find if it is useful and profitable or not and if not owe could it be adjusted. Summarizing all things mentioned about this alternative, it is clear that this solution would be more effective compared to previous ones. The workers would have where to spend their free time in between working hours or after; they would also have a chance to show their creativity and teach others which would lead to getting more responsibilities; the sales of these objects could be bigger than sales of scrap metal; nobody in this process would be harmed or punished; employees would De motivated Ana tenet sell-actualization would Increase connecting both Moscow and Herbert theories. Suggested solution As mentioned in the previous chapter, we decided to choose the third alternative that relates to Masons hierarchy of needs theory and Herrings motivator-hygiene theory. The solution is to allow the process of creating some things from the scrap metal and then after selling it at the company made auction share the sum between the maker and the company. If there was something unsold, give it as a gift for the retirement or other specific occasion to workers. This solution was provided, because it had stronger and more positive results than some other alternatives that we did not mention, but considered as irrelevant to our case. Biggest consequences for this suggested solution could be shown as negative or ineffective answers to such questions: Is it going to work? How long will it take to implement this? How much will it cost? Who will be implementing this? What if workers do not want this solution? If our solution works good, will not take too much time to implement, will not cost too much and we will know who will be responsible for what, then everything should be good unless workers will not accept it.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Pros Cons of the Death Penalty and Current Status by Country

Pros Cons of the Death Penalty and Current Status by Country Capital punishment also dubbed the death penalty, is the planned taking of a human life by a government in response to a crime committed by that legally convicted person. Passions in the United States are sharply divided and run equally strong among both supporters and protesters of the death penalty. Quotations from Both Sides Arguing against capital punishment, Amnesty International believes: The death penalty is the ultimate denial of human rights. It is the premeditated and cold-blooded killing of a human being by the state in the name of justice. It violates the right to life...It is the ultimate cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment. There can never be any justification for torture or for cruel treatment.​ Arguing for capital punishment, the Clark County, Indiana, prosecuting attorney writes: There are some defendants who have earned the ultimate punishment our society has to offer by committing murder with ​aggravating circumstances present. I believe life is sacred. It cheapens the life of an innocent murder victim to say that society has no right to keep the murderer from ever killing again. In my view, society has not only the right, but the duty to act in self-defense to protect the innocent.​ And Catholic Cardinal Theodore McCarrick, Archbishop of Washington, wrote: The death penalty diminishes all of us, increases disrespect for human life, and offers the tragic illusion that we can teach that killing is wrong by killing. Death Penalty in the United States The death penalty has not always been practiced in the United States, although Time magazine estimated that in this country, more than 15,700 people have been legally executed since 1700. The Depression-era 1930s, which saw a historic peak in executions, was followed by a dramatic decrease in the 1950s and 1960s. No executions occurred in the United States between 1967 and 1976.In 1972, the Supreme Court effectively nullified the death penalty and converted the death sentences of hundreds of death row inmates to life in prison.In 1976, another Supreme Court ruling found capital punishment to be constitutional. Since 1976, almost 1,500 people have been executed in the United States. Latest Developments The vast majority of democratic countries in Europe and Latin America have abolished capital punishment over the last 50 years, but the United States, most democracies in Asia, and almost all totalitarian governments retain it. Crimes that carry the death penalty vary greatly worldwide, from treason and murder to theft. In militaries around the world, courts-martial have sentenced capital punishments also for cowardice, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny. Per Amnesty Internationals 2017 death penalty annual report, Amnesty International recorded at least  993 executions  in  23 countries  in 2017, down by 4% from 2016 (1,032 executions) and 39% from 2015 (when the organization reported 1,634 executions, the highest number since 1989). However, those statistics do not include China, known as the worlds top executioner, because the use of the death penalty is a state secret. Countries in the table below with a plus sign () indicate that there were executions, but numbers were not received by Amnesty International. Executions in 2017, by Country China: Iran: 507Saudi Arabia: 146Iraq: 125Pakistan: 60Egypt: 35Somalia: 24United States: 23Jordan: 15Vietnam: North Korea: All other: 58Source: Amnesty International As of 2018, capital punishment in the United States is officially sanctioned by 31 states, as well as by the federal government. Each state with legalized capital punishment has different laws regarding its methods, age limits, and crimes that qualify. From 1976 through October 2018, 1,483 felons were executed in the United States, distributed among the states as follows: Executions from 1976–October 2018, by State Texas: 555  Virginia: 113Oklahoma: 112Florida: 96Missouri: 87Georgia: 72Alabama: 63Ohio: 56North Carolina: 43South Carolina: 43Louisiana: 28Arkansas: 31All others: 184 Source: Death Penalty Information Center States and U.S. territories with no current death penalty statute are Alaska (abolished in 1957), Connecticut (2012), Delaware (2016), Hawaii (1957), Illinois (2011), Iowa (1965), Maine (1887), Maryland (2013), Massachusetts (1984), Michigan (1846), Minnesota (1911), New Jersey (2007), New Mexico (2009), New York (2007), North Dakota  (1973), Rhode Island (1984), Vermont (1964), West Virginia (1965), Wisconsin (1853), District of Columbia (1981), American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and U.S. Virgin Islands. Source: Death Penalty Information Center The Moral Conflict: Tookie Williams The case of Stanley Tookie Williams illustrates the moral complexities of the death penalty. Williams, an author and Nobel Peace and Literature Prizes nominee who was put to death on December 13, 2005, by lethal injection by the state of California, brought capital punishment back into prominent public debate. Williams was convicted of four murders committed in 1979 and sentenced to death. Williams professed innocence of these crimes. He was also co-founder of the Crips, a deadly and powerful Los Angeles–based street gang responsible for hundreds of murders. About five years after incarceration, Williams underwent a religious conversion and, as a result, wrote many books and created programs to promote peace and to fight gangs and gang violence. He was nominated five times for the Nobel Peace Prize and four times for the Nobel Literature Prize. Williams admitted his life of crime and violence, which was followed by genuine redemption and a life of unusually good works. The circumstantial evidence against Williams left little doubt that he committed the four murders, despite last-minute claims by supporters. There also existed no doubt that Williams posed no further threat to society and would contribute considerable good. His case forced public reflection on the purpose of the death penalty: Is the purpose of the death penalty to remove from society someone who would cause more harm?Is the purpose to remove from society someone who is incapable of rehabilitation?Is the purpose of the death penalty to deter others from committing murder?Is the purpose of the death penalty to punish the criminal?Is the purpose of the death penalty to take retribution on behalf of the victim? Should Stanley Tookie Williams have been executed by the state of California? Exorbitant Costs The  New York Times  penned in its  Ã‚  op-ed High Cost of Death Row: To the many excellent reasons to abolish the death penalty- it’s immoral, does not deter murder and affects minorities disproportionately- we can add one more. It’s an economic drain on governments with already badly depleted budgets.It is far from a national trend, but some legislators have begun to have second thoughts about the high cost of death row. (September 28, 2009) In a 2016 California had the unique situation of having two ballot measures up for  a vote  that purported would save taxpayers millions of dollars per year: one to speed up existing executions (Proposition 66) and one to convert all death penalty convictions to life without parole (Proposition 62). Proposition 62 failed in that election, and Proposition 66 narrowly passed.   Arguments For and Against Arguments commonly made for supporting the death penalty are: To serve as  an example  to other would-be criminals, to deter them from committing murder or terrorist acts.To punish the criminal for his/her act.To obtain retribution on behalf of the victims. Arguments commonly made to abolish the death penalty are: Death constitutes cruel and unusual punishment, which is prohibited by the Eighth Amendment to the  U.S. Constitution. Also, the various means used by the state to kill a criminal are cruel.The death penalty is used disproportionately against the poor, who cannot afford expensive legal counsel, as well as against racial, ethnic, and religious minorities.The death penalty is applied arbitrarily and inconsistently.Wrongly convicted, innocent people have received death penalty sentences, and tragically, were killed by the state.A rehabilitated criminal can make a morally valuable contribution to society.Killing human life is morally wrong under all circumstances. Some faith groups, such as the Roman Catholic Church, oppose the death penalty as not being pro-life. Countries that Retain the Death Penalty   As of 2017 per Amnesty International, 53 countries, representing about one-third of all countries worldwide, retain the death penalty for ordinary capital crimes, including the United States, plus: Afghanistan, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Barbados, Belarus, Belize, Botswana, China, Comoros,  Democratic Republic of Congo, Cuba, Dominica, Egypt,  Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Guyana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Lesotho, Libya, Malaysia, Nigeria, North Korea, Oman, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, Qatar, Saint Kitts and Nevis,  Saint Lucia,  Saint Vincent  and the Grenadines, Saudi Arabia,  Sierra Leone, Singapore, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Taiwan, Thailand,  Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda,  United Arab Emirates, United States of America, Viet Nam, Yemen, Zimbabwe. The United States is the only westernized democracy, and one of the few democracies worldwide, to not have abolished the death penalty. Countries That Abolished the Death Penalty As of 2017 per Amnesty International, 142 countries, representing two-thirds of all countries worldwide, have abolished the death penalty on moral grounds, including: Albania, Andorra, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bhutan, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Burundi, Cambodia, Canada,  Cape Verde, Colombia, Cook Islands,  Costa Rica, Cote DIvoire, Croatia, Cyprus,  Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti,  Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland, France, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Holy See (Vatican City), Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Kiribati, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta,  Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands,  New Zealand, Nicaragua, Niue, Norway, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Samoa,  San Marino,  Sao Tome  and Principe, Senegal, Serbia (including Kosovo), Seychelles, Slovakia, Slovenia,  Solomon Islands,  South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Timor-Leste, Togo, Turkey , Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine,  United Kingdom, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela. Some others have a moratorium on executions or are taking strides to abolish death penalty laws on the books.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Biography of Ellsworth Kelly, Minimalist Artist

Biography of Ellsworth Kelly, Minimalist Artist Ellsworth Kelly (May 31, 1923–December 27, 2015) was an American artist who played a key role in the development of minimalist art in the U.S. He was also associated with hard-edge painting and Color Field painting. Kelly is best-known for his single color shaped canvases that went beyond the typical square or rectangular shapes. He also produced sculpture and prints throughout his career. Fast Facts: Ellsworth Kelly Occupation: ArtistBorn: May 31, 1923 in Newburgh, New YorkDied: December 27, 2015 in Spencertown, New YorkEducation: Pratt Institute, School of the Museum of Fine ArtsSelected Works: Red Blue Green (1963), White Curve (2009), Austin (2015)Notable Quote: The negative is just as important as the positive. Early Life and Education Born in Newburgh, New York, Ellsworth Kelly was the second of three sons of insurance company executive Allan Howe Kelly and former schoolteacher Florence Githens Kelly. He grew up in the small town of Oradell, New Jersey. Kellys paternal grandmother introduced him to birding when he was eight or nine years old. The work of legendary ornithologist John James Audubon would influence Kelly throughout his career. Ellsworth Kelly attended public schools, where he excelled in his art classes. His parents were reluctant to encourage Kellys artistic inclinations, but a teacher supported his interest. Kelly enrolled in the Pratt Institutes arts programs in 1941. He studied there until his induction into the U.S. Army on January 1, 1943. Military Service and Early Art Career During World War II, Ellsworth Kelly served with other artists and designers in a unit called The Ghost Army. They created inflatable tanks, sound trucks, and fake radio transmissions to deceive the enemy on the battlefield. Kelly served with the unit in the European Theater of the war. Exposure to camouflage in the war influenced Kellys developing aesthetic. He was interested in the use of form and shadow and the ability of camouflage to hide items in plain sight. After the end of World War II, Kelly used funds from the G.I. Bill to study at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, Massachusetts. Later, he attended the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, France. There, he met other Americans such as avant-garde composer John Cage and choreographer Merce Cunningham. He also associated with French Surrealist artist Jean Arp and Romanian sculptor Constantin Brancusi. The latters use of simplified forms had a profound effect on Kellys developing style. Ellsworth Kelly said that a key development of his painting style while in Paris was figuring out what he didnt want in a painting: [I] just kept throwing things out, like marks, lines and the painted edge. His personal discovery of Claude Monets brightly-colored late-career works in 1952 inspired Kelly to explore even more freedom in his own painting. Kelly made strong connections with fellow artists in Paris, but his work was not selling when he left to return to the U.S. in 1954 and settled in Manhattan. At first, Americans seemed somewhat mystified by Kellys minimalist canvases of bright colors and geometric shapes. According to Kelly, the French told him he was too American, and the Americans said he was too French. Kellys first solo show took place at the Betty Parsons Gallery in New York in 1956. In 1959, the Museum of Modern Art included Kelly in their landmark exhibition 16 Americans alongside Jasper Johns, Frank Stella, and Robert Rauschenberg among others. His reputation grew quickly. Painting Style and Minimalism Unlike many of his contemporaries, Ellsworth Kelly showed no interest in expressing emotion, creating concepts, or telling a story with his art. Instead, he was interested in what happened in the act of viewing. He was curious about the space between the painting and the person looking at it. He eventually abandoned the constraints of typical square or rectangular canvases in the 1960s. Instead, he used a variety of shapes. Kelly called them shaped canvases. Because he used only isolated bright colors and simple shapes, his work was considered part of Minimalism. In 1970, Ellsworth Kelly moved out of Manhattan. He wanted to escape a busy social life that was eating into his time producing art. He built a 20,000 square foot compound three hours north in Spencertown, New York. Architect Richard Gluckman designed the building. It included a studio, office, library, and archive. Kelly lived and worked there until his death in 2015. During the 1970s, Kelly began incorporating more curves in his work and the shapes of his canvases. By the early 1970s, Ellsworth Kelly was prominent enough in American art to be the subject of major retrospectives. The Museum of Modern Art hosted its first Kelly retrospective in 1973. Ellsworth Kelly Recent Paintings and Sculpture followed in 1979. Ellsworth Kelly: A Retrospective traveled in the U.S., the U.K., and Germany in 1996. Kelly also worked on sculpture in steel, aluminum, and bronze. His sculptural pieces are as minimal as his paintings. They are mostly concerned with simplicity in form. The sculptures are designed to be seen quickly, sometimes in a single glance. Ellsworth Kellys final art project was a 2,700-square-foot building influenced by Romanesque churches that he never saw in its completed form. Named Austin, it stands in Austin, Texas as part of the Blanton Museums permanent collection and opened to the public in February 2018. Facades of the building include blown-glass windows in simple colors that reflect Kellys life work. Personal Life Ellsworth Kelly was known as a shy man in his personal life. He had a stutter as a child and became a self-described loner. For the last 28 years of his life, Kelly lived with his partner, photographer Jack Shear. Shear became director of the Ellsworth Kelly Foundation. Legacy and Influence In 1957, Ellsworth Kelly received his first public commission to create a 65-foot-long sculpture titled Sculpture for a Large Wall for the Transportation Building at Penn Center in Philadelphia. It was his largest work yet. That piece was eventually dismantled, but a wide range of public sculpture still exists as part of Kellys legacy. Some of his best-known public artworks include: Curve XXII (I Will) (1981), Lincoln Park in ChicagoBlue Black (2001), Pulitzer Arts Foundation in St. LouisWhite Curve (2009), Art Institute of Chicago Kellys work is seen as a forerunner of artists like Dan Flavin and Richard Serra. Their pieces are also focused on the experience of viewing art instead of trying to convey a specific concept. Source Paik, Tricia. Ellsworth Kelly. Phaidon Press, 2015.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Next Generation Air Transportation System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Next Generation Air Transportation System - Essay Example In addition, this program also encompasses airspace redesign and human factors affected by the air transport Next Generation Air Transport System is a proposed overhaul of the air traffic control system by the FAA. This government organ is moving away from the traditional control plan to exploit the advancement of technology in operating and managing aircrafts across the country. Accordingly, the aviation department plans to move from ground-based radar surveillance to satellite-based automatic monitoring. This program’s essential idea is the concept of free flights across the country. Through the adoption of various innovations, the aircrafts are guided by satellite instruments in the cockpit (Barkowski 6). This technology replaces the ground-based radars that require assistance by numerous traffic air controllers. Additionally, NextGen refers to the technology program that is essential and appropriate for ensuring safe and efficient movements of aircrafts. Thus, individual planes are given freedom to chart their path from departure to arrival destinations without the influence of aviation staff on the ground. Under free flights, the satellite-guided software provides direct and accurate routes to pilots to their targets. The Next Generation Air Transport System is currently in use across the country. Adoption of this program has already improved the air transport system in the country. Through the adoption of the guidelines and provision of this program, passengers are now enjoying the use of air transport. The crafts are saving time and moving swiftly across the country (Dillingham 5). In addition, the agency’s direct flights from different places is also useful. As a result, the industry is saving on operations cost since aircrafts use limited fuel. The crafts are also less pollutant to the environment since the emission of exhaust fumes has greatly reduced. Moreover, the program is